Missoula Measures - Breast and Cervical Cancer
- More data and discussion
- Breast Cancer Brief Background
- Cervical Cancer Brief Background
- Local agencies that address this topic
- Related websites
American women have a one-in-eight risk of developing breast cancer over an average lifetime. Mammography has been shown to reduce deaths by 26% for women aged 50 and over (although it does not appear to reduce breast cancer mortality for pre-menopausal women) Personal Health: A Multicultural Approach, 1995.
Current mammogram guidelines recommend that women over 20 do self-exams every month, receive clinical breast exams between ages 20-40 every three years, receive an initial mammogram at 35, and annual mammograms beginning at 40.
- 23% of breast cancer occurs in women under age 50.
- Mammograms miss about 15% of breast cancers. Dr. Judy Schmidt
Cervical cancer was once a leading cause of cancer death for women in
the United States. Currently, it ranks 3rd in frequency for both
diagnosis and cause of death among the gynecologic cancers1 and 14th for
all cancers affecting U.S. women. Between 1955 and 1992, both incidence
and mortality rates declined dramatically due to the introduction and
implementation of Pap test screening. Most invasive cervical cancers are
found in women who have never been screened or have not had a Pap test
within the past 5 years. Based on 2008-2010 data, approximately
0.7% of women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer in their lifetime.
Every Woman Counts
The American Cancer Soceity recommends a pap test every three years for women ages 21-65. (Routine cervical cancer screening for women under 21 and over 65 is no longer recommended.)
Breast Cancer - Brief Background
Nine out of 10 women discover tumors through regular breast self-exam, and 80% of those tumors are benign The Impact of Cancer on Montana, Part 1: Cancer Fact Book, 1995 However, tumors detected in this manner are usually larger and in a later stage of growth.
In 2012, Montana women reported the following reasons for not getting a mammogram:
- 26% - Felt it did not appy to them (too old, feel healthy, think it's unnecessary)
- 22% - No reason (usually procrastination)
- 21% - Cost
- 11% - Fear of the procedure (including embarassment, discomfort)
Montana DPHHS, Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Bureau
Female, ageing, high alcohol consumption, being overweight, maybe a high-fat diet. However, over 80% of women having breast cancer have NO identified risk factors.
Early detection is the key to successfully treating, and surviving, breast or cervical cancer. Over 95% of women diagnosed with breast or cervical cancer survive when it is found early. Karen Cater, DPHHS
Virtually all (99.7%) of cervical cancers are caused by persistent infection with a high-risk type of Human Papilomavirus (HPV). HPV is commonly spred through sexual activity, but can be spread by skin-to-skin contact with an infected body area.
While long-term HPV infection is necessary for cervical cancer to develop, the vast majority of women with persistent high-risk infection do not develop cervical cancer.
A vaccine is available to prevent HPV, and the use of condoms will
help reduce exposure to HPV.
Every Woman Counts
Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer:
- HPV infection
- HIV infection
- a diet low in fruits and vegetables
- having sex at an early age
- having many sexual partners
- failure to use a condom
- having a partner who has had many sex partners
- having sex with uncircumcised males
- Chlamydia infection
- long-term use of birth control pills
- 3 or more full-term pregnancies
- pregnancies at a young age
- family history
Center for Disease Prevention and Control
The Montana Breast and Cervical Health Program has produced a brochure called Side by Side that summarizes services of the MBCHP, the American Cancer Society, and the Montana Komen Race for the Cure, as well as more websites.
The Montana Breast and Cervical Health Program has an administrative site at Partnership Health Center in Missoula offering yearly mammograms, clinical breast exams, education, and regular Pap tests to uninsured or underinsured women ages 50 through 64. Income to qualify is up to and including 200% of poverty (a woman in a one person household can earn up to $7.92 per hour in a full-time job and qualify). The Missoula site serves Missoula, Mineral, and Ravalli counties and has providers in each county to serve qualified women. The Missoula program is administered through Partnership Health Center. The Montana information number is 1-888-803-9343.
- American Medical Women's Association
- Avon's Breast Cancer Awareness Crusade
- Cancer Care, Inc.
- Cancer Research Foundation of America
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation
- National Alliance for Breast Cancer Organizations (NABCO)
- National Breast & Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program
- National Cancer Institute
- Y-ME National Breast Cancer Organization
- Zeneca Health Care Foundation
- Women's Health Statistics - by state; National Institute for Health