Missoula Measures - Youth Substance Abuse
- How are we doing?
- Related data
- Marijuana use
- Brief background
- Risk factors
- Children under 14
- Related Measures
- Related websites
Why this topic?
There are serious short term and long term impacts of underage drinking and illegal drug use:
In the short run, it increases the incidences of violence, vandalism, pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, traffic crashes, academic difficulties, date rape, unintentional injuries, and illnesses.
In the long run, it leads to alcoholism and drug addiction (the younger people are when they start using, the more likely they are to become addicted), death or permanent injury in traffic crashes, dropping out of school, teen parenting, suicide, family violence, stunted physical and mental development, and chronic disease.
The three leading causes of death for 15- to 24-year-olds are automobile crashes, homicides and suicides -- alcohol is a leading factor in all three. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking. HHS, Office of the Surgeon General, 2007.
Teens also haven’t learned to drink responsibly, or in moderation. They usually don’t drink to relax, they drink to get drunk, which increases the potential for problems.
"Excessive alcohol use remains the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States and leads to a wide range of health and social problems." CDC Director Thomas R. Frieden, M.D., M.P.H.
|Healthy People 2020 Target|
|Reduce adolescents who have ridded with a drinking driver in past 30 days||28.3%||25.5%|
Barriers to reducing teen substance abuse include:
- Parents who see teen alcohol and marijuana use as a “right of passage”.
- Adults who buy alcohol for teens.
- Alcohol sales establishments that sell to underage buyers.
- Parents who fail to discuss responsible drinking with their teens.
- Alcohol or or drug abuse in the home.
Nationally, 43% of teens report that they had one drink in the past 30 days; in Montana, it is 49%. YRBS 2005
According to an Oct. 2010 report from CDC, nationally:
- 1 in 4 high school students and young adults (age 18-24) report binge drinking (4 or more drinks in a couple hours) in the past month.
- Men are twice as likely to binge drink as women.
- Binge drinking increases the risks for fatal car crashes, contracting a sexually transmitted disease, dating violence and drug overdose.
Alcohol is by far the most commonly used drug by teens in Missoula, followed by tobacco and marijuana. It is typically the first drug used by teens and many teens who experiment with other drugs do so while under the influence of alcohol. MUSAP Report 2010
|% of Students who...||1991||1993||1995||1997||1999||2001||2003||2005||2007||2009|
|Had at least 1 drink in lifetime||85||83||84||84||86||83||81||78||78||76|
|Were 12 or younger at first drink||41||40||39||39||34||35||30||28||24|
|Had 1 or more drinks in past month||54||56||58||59||58||54||50||49||47||43|
|Binge drank in past month*||38||41||43||44||44||41||37||34||33||30|
|Drank alcohol on school property in past month||NA||5||7||9||8||7||7||6||6||5|
* Binge drinking means 5 or more drinks within a couple hours.
Montana YRBS Trend Data
|Healthy People 2020 Target|
|Reduce percent of adolescents who binge drank in the past month||9.4%||8.5%|
More PNA 2004 Data:
Percent of Missoula County Students Who Used _______ in the Past 30 Days:
2011 Missoula and Montana YRBS self-reported data indicates that 2-4 % of middle and high school students have used meth in the past month.
In 2008, in Missoula County, there were 7 suicide deaths by prescription drug overdose, higher than ever before.
In the US, between 2004 - 2008, the number of Emergency Department (ED) visits for non-medical use of prescription pain medications (opiod analgesics) increased 111%; for the use of anti-anxiety medications (benzodiazipines) ED visits increased 89%.
In 2004 there were 1 million ED visits for illicit drugs and 1/2 million for prescription pain drugs.
In 2008 there were 1 million ED visits for illicit drugs and 1 million visits for prescription pain drugs.
From: Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) - a division of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) - US Dept of Health
(Information for specific high schools may be available from those school principals.)
Healthy People 2020:
Have ridden with a driver who had been drinking - in the past 30 days
- Western Montana, YRBS data, 2005 - 30%
- Healthy People 2010 Target - 30%
Nationally, underage drinking is involved in a large percentage of
crimes, injuries, and
fatalities involving teens:
- 24% of fatal motor vehicle crashes
- 8% of nonfatal motor vehicle crashes
- 30% of fatal drownings
- 30% of fatal burns
- 41% of homicide
- 43% of sexual assaults
- 37% of other assaults
- 9% of suicides
- 20% of risky sexual behavior
- 24% of property crimes
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation - “Societal Costs of Underage Drinking, 2006"
In Missoula County in 2009 (most recent data available):
24% of drivers involved in alcohol-related traffic crashes were under the age of 21 Total alcohol-related traffic crashes - 416; Drivers under age 21 - 50
|Breakdown of ages of underage drives in alcohol-related crashes in Missoula County:|
|AGE||NUMBER OF CRASHES|
Montana Department of Transportation
National Youth Drinking Trends (70s to present)
A 2004 analysis of youth drinking trends over the last three decades finds that, since the early 90s, prevalence is relatively stable, but the levels still remain high. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).
The research found that underage drinking rates peaked in the late 1970s, when 80 percent of adolescents said they consumed alcohol by the time they were 12th graders, and 12 percent of 8th-graders said they consumed five or more drinks on a single occasion within the two weeks prior to being surveyed.
In the 1980s, when the minimum legal drinking age rose from 18 to 21, youth drinking rates declined. Since the early 1990s, underage drinking rates have stabilized, but at levels that experts describe as disturbing.
Currently, rates for any alcohol use in the past 30 days range from 20 percent of 8th-graders to 49 percent of 12th-graders. The research also shows that more than 12 percent of 8th-graders and nearly 30 percent of 12th-graders reported drinking five or more drinks in a row in the past two weeks. The study's findings are published in the September 2004 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.
Risk and protective factors are characteristics in families, schools and communities that effect a young person's likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use, being successful in school, or having healthy interactions with family, friends and community, either as adolescents or as adults. Increasing or improving protective factors and reducing or eliminating risk factors can help insure healthy growth and development.
Web sites that address youth risk and protective factors:
- Search Institute - 40 Development Assets
- American Council for Drug Education
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- National Institute on Drug Abuse
Children are defined as 14 and under (or generally middle school aged and younger). They are at greater risk for more serious consequences in the short and long term than older drinkers. More than 40% of people who begin drinking before age 13 are classified with alcohol dependence at some time in their lives. If the onset of drinking is delayed 5 years, a child’s risk of developing serious alcohol problems is decreased by 50%.
Important maturing of the nervous system and brain continue through late adolescence into early adulthood, and children 14 and under are particularly vulnerable. Alcohol use during these years has life-long effects on memory, verbal skills, and cognitive function.
Age at first use is associated with other health problems including early and unwanted pregnancy, depression, suicide, exposure to sexually transmitted disease, violent behavior, criminal activity, difficulty in school, injury and death.
In addition, this is an important concern because there is significant community agreement that we should not tolerate children drinking. There are many things we can do better (parents, older siblings, other youth, schools, judges, law enforcement, human service and health providers, businesses, and political officials) to reduce the number of children who drink, and to more effectively intervene with ones who do.
“How Does Alcohol Affect the World of a Child” Leadership to Keep Children Alcohol Free May 2001
MUSAP Report Card 2011 - Underage Drinking in Missoula County
Risky behaviors associated with tobacco use:
Category clarification for graph above:
Made a serious suicide attempt in past year
Were purposely hit, slapped or hurt by boyfriend or girlfriend in past year
Used spit tobacco in past month
Drove after drinking alcohol in past month
Drank 5 or more alcoholic drinks within a couple hours in the past month
Tried marijuana in lifetime
Had sexual intercourse in lifetime
Healthy People 2020 - Background on national public health status of this topic and many others.
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information - sponsored by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.
Web of Addictions - provides accurate information about alcohol and other drug addictions.